Majocchi granuloma on a child's face.
Majocchi granuloma (MG) is a rare dermal and subcutaneous fungal infection. We report a rare case of MG on the face of a six-year-old child caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes after long term use of topical corticosteroids and other inadequate topical medications. He was treated with griseofulvin 25 mg/kg/day for 35 days unsuccessfully and successful treatment was obtained with terbinafine.
Arch Dis Child. 2018 May 4. pii: archdischild-2018-314922. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2018-314922. [Epub ahead of print]
The greatest sun exposure occurs until adolescence and this is the only factor involved in photocarcinogenesis subject to modification with photoprotection.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the habits and knowledge of adolescents regarding photoprotection.
Cross-sectional study that included 512 students from primary and high school. Data were collected by questionnaires with questions about habits and knowledge on sun protection. For data analysis, Pearson's Chi-square test and Yates test were applied, with 5% level of significance.
We evaluated 512 students, with a mean age of 14 years old. The teenagers agreed that ultraviolet rays cause skin cancer and aging (96% and 70%, respectively). Knowledge about the occurrence of burns even on cloudy days was recorded in 68% of cases, as well as the need for photoprotection for sports in 72%. The source of information about sun protection were by parents in 55%. In 70% was observed previous occurrence of sunburn, the daily use of sunscreens was found in 15% and 67% used only at the beach. of sunscreens with SPF higher than 30 was reported by 70% of students and 57% reported going to the beach between 10h and 16h. In 68% of cases it was registered insufficient sun protection, attributed, in 57% of the time to forgetfulness.
The sample refers to two schools of Curitiba (PR), Brazil.
Teenagers know the risks of sun exposure, but they do not adopt the practices for adequate protection.
Nail clipping, the act of cutting the distal portion of a nail for microscopic analysis, can complement the diagnosis of skin diseases with nail involvement, such as psoriasis. This study aimed to describe histopathologic findings on 81 nails from 52 children and adolescents with skin psoriasis and to determine whether these changes correlated with the severity of skin and nail involvement.
Children with psoriasis were enrolled in this cross-sectional study to obtain Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Nail Psoriasis Severity Index (NAPSI) scores. The most altered nails were processed using periodic acid-Schiff with diastase staining.
Fifty-two patients with a median age of 10.5 years were included. The median Nail Psoriasis Severity Index score of the 20 nails from these patients was 17 (range 3-80). The most common findings were pitting (94.2%), leukonychia (73.0%), and longitudinal ridges (63.5%). Eighty-one nail fragments were collected by clipping. Neutrophils were found in 6 samples (7.6%) and serous lakes in 15 (19%). Median nail plate thickness was 0.3 mm (range 0.1-0.63 mm). Patients whose nails had neutrophils had a higher median PASI score (6.1 vs 2.0, P = .03). Patients whose nails had serous lakes had higher median PASI (5.3 vs 1.9, P = .008) and NAPSI (median 45.0 vs 18.0, P = .006) scores.
There seems to be a correlation between some microscopic nail features in children with psoriasis and their PASI and NAPSI scores, so nail clippings from children with suspected psoriasis may help with diagnosis, especially in the presence of neutrophils, and in excluding onychomycosis.
© 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
inflammatory disorders; nail disorders; psoriasis
Canato M, Uber M, Carvalho VO.
Arch Dis Child. 2018 Feb;103(2):164. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2017-312872. Epub 2017 Jun 28. No abstract available.
Multifocal Congenital Hemangiopericytoma.
Congenital hemangiopericytoma (HPC) is a rare mesenchymal tumor with less aggressive behavior and a more favorable prognosis than similar tumors in adults. Multifocal presentation is even less common than isolated HPC and hence its clinical and histologic recognition may be challenging. A newborn infant with multifocal congenital HPC causing severe deformity but with a favorable outcome after chemotherapy and surgical removal is reported.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Progeria and the early aging in children: a case report.
The Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome or progeria is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by premature aging and involvement of internal systems, such as the circulatory and locomotor. The diagnosis is essentially clinical and the manifestations become more evident from the first year of life. Long term outcome data from Progeria Research Foundation clinical trials have demonstrated an increase in survival in recent years. Even though new trials are ongoing, the recognition of this syndrome is essential to prevent cardiovascular and cerebrovascular complications. A patient, initially asymptomatic, who developed characteristic signs of the syndrome at the age of 6 months is reported. She was referred for evaluation only when she was two years and eleven months old. The diagnosis of Hutchinson-Gilford syndrome was suspected owing to clinical characteristics. The diagnosis was confirmed by genetic testing. A mutation c.1824C> T in exon 11 of the LMNA gene was detected. She was registered in the Progeria Research Foundation and was invited to participate in the weighing and supplementation program. She was included in the lonafarnib protocol study. This medication is a farnesyl transferase inhibitor that prevents the production of progerina and slows cardiovascular and neurological complications of the syndrome. This case highlights the importance of diagnosing progeria patients because they may be referred to the Progeria Research Foundation, which offers genetic screening and inclusion in clinical and therapeutic follow-up protocols without any costs. Progeria trials and research may also contribute to new drug developments related to prevention of aging and atherosclerosis in the near future.
Nail changes in psoriatic children.
The objective of the current study was to determine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels and the severity of atopic dermatitis (AD) in a Brazilian population.
This was a cross-sectional study of patients younger than 14 years of age seen from April to November 2013. All patients fulfilled the Hanifin and Rajka Diagnostic Criteria for AD diagnosis. Disease severity was determined using the SCORing Atopic Dermatitis index and classified as mild (<25), moderate (25-50), or severe (>50). Serum vitamin D levels were classified as sufficient (≥30 ng/mL), insufficient (29-21 ng/mL), or deficient (≤20 ng/mL).
A total of 105 patients met the inclusion criteria. Mild AD was diagnosed in 58 (55.2%) children, moderate in 24 (22.8%), and severe in 23 (21.9%). Vitamin D deficiency was observed in 45 individuals (42.9%). Of these, 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 13 (28.9%) moderate, and 8 (17.7%) severe. Insufficient vitamin D levels were found in 45 (42.9%) individuals; 24 (53.3%) had mild AD, 9 (20.0%) moderate, and 12 (26.7%) severe. Of the 15 individuals (14.2%) with sufficient vitamin D levels, 10 (60.7%) had mild AD, 2 (13.3%) moderate, and 3 (20.0%) severe. The mean vitamin D level was 22.1 ± 7.3 ng/mL in individuals with mild AD, 20.8 ± 6.5 ng/mL in those with moderate AD, and 21.9 ± 9.3 ng/mL in those with severe AD. Variables such as sex, age, skin phototype, season of the year, and bacterial infection were not significantly associated with vitamin D levels.
Levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were deficient or insufficient in 85% of the children, but serum vitamin D concentrations were not significantly related to AD severity.
© 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hematohidrosis: insights in the pathophysiology.
Trichothiodystrophy is a rare condition associated with autosomal recessive or X-linked dominant variants in the ERCC2, ERCC3, GTF2H5, MPLKIP, RNF113A or GTF2E2 genes. The genes associated to photosensitive trichothiodystrophy encode subunits of transcription factor IIH, involved in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. The disease is characterised by cysteine-deficient brittle hair along with other neuroectodermal abnormalities. It has a variable clinical expression and some cases might be associated with photosensitivity, resulting in the acronym PIBIDS (photosensitivity, ichthyosis, brittle hair, intellectual impairment, decreased fertility and short stature). We report clinical findings of two siblings diagnosed with trichothiodystrophy associated with marked photosensitivity.
© BMJ Publishing Group Limited 2018. No commercial re-use. See rights and permissions. Published by BMJ.
To evaluate the pH value of children's antibacterial soaps and syndets used in children's baths and verify whether there is information regarding pH on the product label.
Quantitative, cross-sectional, analytical observational study that included ninety soap samples, both in bar and liquid presentations, as follows: 67 children's soap (group 1), 17 antibacterial soaps (group 2), and 6 syndets (group 3). Each sample had its pH measured after 1% dilution. In addition to descriptive statistics, the Pearson-Yates chi-squared test and Student's t-tests were applied, considering the minimal significance level of 5%. The Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, Fisher's exact test, and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used for inferential statistics.
The pH levels varied considerably between liquid and bar presentations, with lower levels (4.4-7.9) found for the liquids (p<0.05). Syndets showed pH levels close to the ideal (slightly acid) and the antibacterial soaps showed the highest pH levels (up to 11.34) (p<0.05). Only two of the soaps included in the study had information about their pH levels on the product packaging.
Knowledge of the pH of children's soap by doctors and users is important, considering the great pH variability found in this study. Moreover, liquid soaps, and especially syndets, are the most recommended for the sensitive skin of neonates and infants, in order to guarantee skin barrier efficacy.
Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Anti-bacterial agents; Antibacterianos; Childcare; Concentração de íons de hidrogênio; Cuidado da criança; Detergentes; Detergents; Hydrogen-ion concentration; Sabões; Soaps